Alternative Fuel Systems Inc.

Glossary

Alternative Fuel – An alternative fuel is an internal combustion engine fuel other than gasoline or diesel oil.  Alternative fuels include: natural gas (compressed and liquefied), propane (liquefied petroleum gas - LPG), hydrogen, biomass-derived fuels, biodiesel, alcohol (including ethanol and methanol), alcohol mixtures with gasoline or other fuels, and electricity.

Alternative Fuel Vehicles (AFVs) - Vehicles with engines that operate on a fuel other than gasoline or diesel. These vehicles are designed and manufactured by an original equipment manufacturer (OEM), or are converted in the "aftermarket".

Bi-fuel Vehicle - a vehicle with two separate fuel systems designed to run on either an alternative fuel or a conventional fuel using only one fuel at a time.  A typical bi-fuel vehicle allows the driver to choose either gasoline or natural gas.

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) - a colourless, odourless, non-poisonous gas that is a normal constituent of ambient air. It does not have direct adverse human health effects, although it is a greenhouse gas, contributing to the potential for global climate change.

Carbon Monoxide (CO) - a colourless, tasteless, odourless gas. It is poisonous if inhaled and is produced by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. It is a major component of urban air pollution.

Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) - natural gas compressed to a volume and density that can be used in a portable fuel supply.

Dedicated Vehicle - a vehicle that operates only on one fuel. The term is used primarily in reference to vehicles dedicated to operate on natural gas.

Dual Fuel Vehicle - a vehicle designed to operate on a combination of both an alternative and a conventional fuel simultaneously.  An example is Diesel-CNG dual fuel in which the natural gas is provided for the main combustion source and the Diesel is used in pilot amounts for the ignition source.

Greenhouse Gases - are water vapour, carbon dioxide, tropospheric ozone, nitrous oxide and methane. Greenhouse gases are transparent to solar radiation but opaque to long wave radiation and contribute to global warming.

Hydrocarbons (HC) - organic chemical compounds that consist only of carbon and hydrogen and are a major component of petroleum products, natural gas and coals. A number of exhaust hydrocarbons are toxic, with the potential to cause cancer.

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) - Natural gas that has been liquefied by reducing its temperature to between -120 and -170°C (-184 and –274°F) at atmospheric pressure.  Requires cryogenic storage.

Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) - a vehicle that operates on either CNG or LNG.

Oxides of Nitrogen (NOX) - a general term for compounds of nitrogen oxide, nitrogen dioxide and other nitrogen oxides. These compounds are typically created during the combustion process and are major contributors to smog formation and acid deposition.

Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) - the original vehicle or engine manufacturer that provides the original design and materials for assembly and manufacture of their product.

Particulate Matter (PM) - liquid or solid particles such as dust, smoke, mist or smog found in air emissions. Particulate matter can cause respiratory illness and some are known cancer-causing substances.